Since the last century indigenous nomadic pastoralists in Iran have been confronted with important historical events such as: the sedentarisation policy, the White Revolution (including agrarian reform and nationalization of the forests and rangelands). These policies weakened their customary management structures and were essentially continued following the Islamic revolution. Each of these events in turn has contributed to the disintegration of these productive communities.
Since 2003, the indigenous nomadic pastoralists with the support of Organisation for Nomadic Peoples of Iran (ONPI), Forests, Rangelands and Watershed Management Organisation (FRWO), IIED and CENESTA, have focused on the key problem which the tribes themselves identified: “the social management vacuum in the tribal communities”. As a result of this analysis they decided to revive their customary social institutions at the level of tribal confederacy, tribe, sub-tribe and clans.